22.3.06

Jorvik Viking Center (York, UK)

初訪約克這個美麗的小鎮,是還在英國唸書時的事了。當時,為了論文走訪四處,來到了離約克不遠的里茲城。出發前是沒有什麼計畫的,只知道在整整兩天的行程中,必定要去參訪那一座被列在論文案例分析的醫學博物館,其他就隨著心情、時間來決定。在里茲城的那個晚上,索性把地圖一攤,看看附近有什麼好玩的地方,這才發現我離約克這個讓我心神嚮往的地方如此地近,當下就決定第二天一大早出發到約克一遊。
I visited York when I was still doing my master study in UK. During that period, I was going around visiting museums for my thesis, and that's how I arrived Leeds, a city that is not too far from York. Before I departed from London, I didn't really plan the trip. I only knew that during the two-day trip I had to visit the Thackray Medical Museum because I took it as one of my case studies. All the time left was for pleasure and I'd see how my mood was. I was staying at a B&B in Leeds. In the evening, I took out the map, trying to check if there's anything interesting around this area. I happily discovered that York is lying so close to Leeds and decided to visit the little town that I've been thinking to go since a while.

約克以維京人的考古遺址聞名於世,到此玩耍,必然不能放過著名的約克維京中心。這座開放於1984年的博物館,肇始於1976至1981年間,英國約克市發現了世界上保存最完整的維京人文物遺址。在挖掘的五年間,於此地出土的文物有上萬件,而且保存狀況非常的良好。於是,在考古發掘工作完成之後的第三年,這座由約克考古公益信託社(York Archaeological Trust)所經營管理的約克維京中心,便正式向世人開放。
York is famous for Viking heritage sites. The Jorvik Viking Centre is a must-go when one visits the town. The museum (center) was opened in 1984. From 1976 to 1981, some excavation works were going on and the most important Viking heritage in the world was found. During the five year excavation, more than 10,000 pieces of artefacts were found and they were all in excellent condition. Three years after the excavation project was completed, the Jorvik Viking Center operated by York Archaeological Trust was open to the public.

約克維京中心位於一座維京時期村落的遺址上。在考古挖掘之初,所有的出土文物都被移至實驗室中處理,之後再放回原先發掘的位置。此地所出土、展示的文物包括建築物與各種用具,其目的在於幫助參觀者了解考古發掘工作,以及千年以前的維京文化。
The museum is situated on top of an ancient Viking village. During the excavation, all artefacts were taken to laboratories for treatment and then put back to their original location. What were found include houses, utensils and objects that were used in everyday life. The purpose of the museum is to help visitors understand archaeological excavation work as well as Viking culture that existed more than one thousand years ago.

還記得我從一樓入口進入維京中心,購票以後將順著樓梯走下樓,經過一系列解說面板以後,便抵達了維京時期村落的水平面。此時,在館員的引導下,我坐上了小型軌道車,進行一趟時光之旅。神奇的是,除了身體以倒退的方向,觀賞一系列的歷史事件如第二次世界大戰、第一次世界大戰、英國內戰等,最後抵達大約距今一千年以前的維京時期以外,有關這一段時光之旅的語音解說,都透過設在軌道車座位兩旁與參觀者耳朵位置等高的喇叭播放,讓我彷彿置身於時光隧道,聽著故事慢慢步入古老的約克。
I entered the museum from ground floor. After I bought the ticket, I walked down the stairs and passed through a series of explanation panels before I entered the level where the Viking village is/was situated. I was guided onto a train track cart for a "back in time" ride. The striking feeling came from the fact that the cart is moving backward while visitors are introduced to a series of historical events, such as the second world wide war, the first world wide war, the civil war in UK, before arriving Viking period back in around one thousand years ago. I listened to the audio information from the built-in speakers in the cart. It's like stepping into the past through time channel along with old stories.

接下來,軌道車的方向改為正向朝前方行進,行進來到一個根據出土文物與資料所重建的維京時期村落。這個村落裡充滿了各種聲音、味道與視覺效果,當時維京人生活情景,從市集交易、住宅、漁市場、漁船到臭味撲鼻的老廁所等,都透過生態造景的方式,真實地呈現在我面前。這些維京時期街道的真實重現,所有的建築物都是以西元975年時的狀況,也就是考古挖掘之際所發現的位置來呈現,而且更令人訝異的是,即使是展示中所看到的蠟像,都是利用考古挖掘出來的維京人遺骨來製作。
After entering the actual site of the Viking village, the cart started to move forward. I arrived a Viking village that was re-constructed according to all the artefats and information found during the excavation. There're sounds, smells and visual effects to present how a Viking lived his life. Markets, houses, fishing boats, even odorous toilette are presented with diorama, to be as lively as possible dated back to 975 A.D. Even the wax figures were made according to the skeleton found during the excavation.

稍後,我穿過了一個黑暗的隧道,在一切豁然開朗之際,進入考古挖掘工作的現場。這段參觀過程將解釋考古發掘工作的過程,以及其後在實驗室裡的分析與研究工作,目的在於讓參觀者對學者們如何重現這個古老村落的方法,認識實驗室裡的工作,並且有機會能親身檢驗文物、使用各式儀器。
I passed through a dark tunnel. When everything was bright and back to daylight again, I was situated at an excavation site. It's trying to show the visitors the process of an excavation work and the later analysis as well as research work. So visitors might be able to get some idea as to how experts how to reconstruct this ancient village and how lab works are like. Visitors also get the chance to examine artifacts and utilises some apparatus.

在通過遺址進入展示區以後,則看到裝扮成維京時期人物的館員,透過超過八百件的展示品來了解一千年前此地的生活到底是什麼樣子。
The next area is focusing on static exhibition. Museum staff dressed as Vikings are presented. Visitors can catch a glimpse of the lives of Vikings through more than 800 pieces of artefacts.

自開放以來,已有超過一千三百萬人到此參觀。中心位址就在考古發掘的現址,利用挖掘出的文物重新創造出維京時代的約克市,運用包括聽覺、視覺、甚至嗅覺等各種人體感官來增進參觀者的經驗。事實上,這樣的手法在當時是極為創新的實驗,它不但持續吸引參觀者到此參觀,也因為維京中心的成功,讓世界上許多其他機構前仆後繼地運用類似的概念與想法,為遺址詮釋方式開啟了新的一章。在英國的那一年,不管是上課、閱讀文獻資料,都會不經意地看到這座博物館的名字,一切的一切,都在我參觀之際,馬上心領神會。
Since its opening, there're more than 13 million people that have visited the musseum. At the time of the opening, an interpretation incorporating human senses including audio, visual and smell to enhance visitor experiences was very innovative. It keeps attracting thousands of visitors, and for its success, many other institutes in the world tried to apply similar ideas and concepts. It opened a new page to heritage interpretation and is very often referred to in the heritage and museum sector. All these can be realised and understood with a single visit!

PS1. Year of visit: 2000
PS2. For images of the exhibition, please go to YAT Photographic Archive and find "JORVIK" on the left side.

1 comment:

standinsnow said...

That's pretty cool!I'm going to visit it three days later with my girlfriend.Your post helps me a lot.Thanks